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RV 10.90 : Purusha (puruSa) Suktham (sUktam) : Narayana (nArAyaNa) Rishih (RSih)

The 90th suktham of the tenth mandala of Rg Veda Samhita, is the puruSa sUktam. The Vajasaneyi Samhita of the Shukla Yajur Vedam, the Taittriya Aranyaka of the Krishna Yajur Vedam, the Sama Veda, and the Atharvana Veda, also contain the Purusha Suktham with slight variations.

Free Audio Online http://www.vedamantram.com/audio/purusha.mp3 (with Yajur Veda Swara Chanting)

The Purusha Suktam is one of the Pancha Suktams of the Sri Vaishnava sampradaya or tradition. The other four are the Narayana Suktam, Sri Suktam, Bhu Suktam, and the Nila Suktam. In South India, the Purusha Suktam, Vishnu Suktam, Sri Suktam, and Narayana Suktam are generally chanted together in paarayanam. The Sri Rudram, Purusha Suktam, Upanishads, the Gita, and the Vishnu Sahasra Naamam are also recommended for daily paarayanam – chanting. Since the Purusha Suktam is seen in all Vedas, it is cited as the essence of all Srutis by Veda Vyasa in the MahabharataSaunakaApastamba, and Bodhayana have also written concerning the use of the Purusha Suktam. (Source)

Starting from the first mantram of the puruSa sUktam, there are variations in translations provided by various sources.

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RV_10.090.01.1{17} sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt

RV_10.090.01.2{17} sabhūmiṃ viśvato vṛtvātyatiṣṭhad daśāṅgulam

Translation :

The puruSa has thousands or infinite (sahasra) of heads (s’IrSA), thousands of eyes (AkSah) and thousands of feet (pAt).

He, having encircled (vRtvA) the earth (BUmim) with the universe (vis’vato : from all sides)

Stood beyond it at a distance of 10 thumb lengths. (This line is variously interpreted. Word by word given below.)

The Meaning :

The Purusa of infinite capabilities (intelligence, strength, skill etc), enveloped the earth with the universe (stars, galaxies.. etc) and stood beyond at about 10 inches’ (a foot approx), length.

Interpretation :

Vishnu is beyond Dhruva (Polaris), the furthest observable star to the north along the earth’s axis, which makes tiny revolutions about the axis. That is where He stands. See Measuring distances in degrees in the sky using your hand

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RV_10.090.02.1{17} puruṣa evedaṃ sarvaṃ yad bhūtaṃ yacca bhavyam

The puruSa alone is all this, which has taken place and which is yet to be.

RV_10.090.02.2{17} utāmṛtatvasyeśāno yadannenātirohati

uta = also, amRtatvasya = of immortality, Is’anah=master, lord yat = which, annena = by water or food (cooked rice or other grain), ati-rohati = climbs beyond

Also (the puruSa) is the divine master of immortality which goes beyond water.

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RV_10.090.03.1{17} etāvānasya mahimāto jyāyāṃśca pūruṣaḥ

RV_10.090.03.2{17} pādo.asyaviśvā bhūtāni tripādasyāmṛtaṃ divi

In this post : Meaning : RV_10.090.03.2{17} pādo.asyaviśvā bhūtāni tripādasyāmṛtaṃ divi , we learn that the all the living beings comprise but one fourth of the Purusha and that the immortal heavens comprise three fourths of the puruSa. So, I think, if you want to look at the puruSa, you can step out and take a look at the sky with all its stars and millions of planets etc.

RV_10.090.04.1{17} tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ
RV_10.090.04.2{17} tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi
RV_10.090.05.1{17} tasmād virāḷ ajāyata virājo adhi pūruṣaḥ
RV_10.090.05.2{17} sa jātoatyaricyata paścād bhūmimatho puraḥ
RV_10.090.06.1{18} yat puruṣeṇa haviṣā devā yajñamatanvata

RV_10.090.06.2{18} vasantoasyāsīdājyaṃ grīṣma idhmaḥ śarad dhaviḥ

Understanding the Purusha : Rg Veda: vasantoasyāsīdājyaṃ grīṣma idhmaḥ śaraddhaviḥ

RV_10.090.07.1{18} taṃ yajñaṃ barhiṣi praukṣan puruṣaṃ jātamagrataḥ

RV_10.090.07.2{18} tena devā ayajanta sādhyā ṛṣayaśca ye

From that the dEvAs were born and the sAdhyAs and the RSis.

RV_10.090.08.1{18} tasmād yajñāt sarvahutaḥ sambhṛtaṃ pṛṣadājyam

RV_10.090.08.2{18} paśūntāṃścakre vāyavyānāraṇyān grāmyāśca ye
RV_10.090.09.1{18} tasmād yajñāt sarvahuta ṛcaḥ sāmāni jajñire
RV_10.090.09.2{18} chandāṃsijajñire tasmād yajustasmādajāyata
RV_10.090.10.1{18} tasmādaśvā ajāyanta ye ke cobhayādataḥ
RV_10.090.10.2{18} gāvo hajajñire tasmāt tasmājjātā ajāvayaḥ
RV_10.090.11.1{19} yat puruṣaṃ vyadadhuḥ katidhā vyakalpayan


RV_10.090.11.2{19} mukhaṃ kimasya kau bāhū kā ūrū pādā ucyete
RV_10.090.12.1{19} brāhmaṇo.asya mukhamāsīd bāhū rājanyaḥ kṛtaḥ
RV_10.090.12.2{19} ūrūtadasya yad vaiśyaḥ padbhyāṃ śūdro ajāyata

The face of the puruSa (Vishnu) : RV 10.90 : Purusha Suktham : Narayana Rshih

RV_10.090.13.1{19} candramā manaso jātaścakṣoḥ sūryo ajāyata

RV_10.090.13.2{19} mukhādindraścāgniśca prāṇād vāyurajāyata

Understanding the Purusha : Rg Veda:  : RV_10.090.13

RV_10.090.14.1{19} nābhyā āsīdantarikṣaṃ śīrṣṇo dyauḥ samavartata
RV_10.090.14.2{19} padbhyāṃ bhūmirdiśaḥ śrotrāt tathā lokānakalpayan
RV_10.090.15.1{19} saptāsyāsan paridhayastriḥ sapta samidhaḥ kṛtāḥ
RV_10.090.15.2{19} devāyad yajñaṃ tanvānā abadhnan puruṣaṃ paśum
RV_10.090.16.1{19} yajñena yajñamayajanta devāstāni dharmāṇi prathamānyāsan
RV_10.090.16.2{19} te ha nākaṃ mahimānaḥ sacanta yatra pūrve sādhyāḥsanti devāḥ


Authorship and Copyright Notice : All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula


Written by Satya Sarada Kandula

March 8, 2010 at 1:11 pm

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