Vedic Swaras or Variations in Pitch
As per my Veda Guru :
- Unmarked letters are udaata.
- If you see a horizontal line below a letter, you have to drop the pitch – anudaata
- If you see a vertical line above a letter, you have to raise the pitch – swarita.
- If you see a double vertical line above a letter, you to raise and the pitch and stretch it – dIrgha swarita.
- In specific instances the swara of the previous letter is carried till the next occurring anudata or till the end of that pada or mantra, that is prachaya. This is a rough rule.
- There are variations between Vedic Chanting between North and South India as well as across the various mathams. Each sampradayam (tradition) is correct in its own context.
As Per Panini’s Siksha :
- There are 3 svaras : udAtta, anudAtta and svarita and 3 kinds of time hrasva (short), dirgha (long), and plupta (?) (11)
- udAtta niSada, gAndharva; anudAtta RSabha, dhaivata; svarita SaDja, madhyama, pancama (12)
Image below from Source. It’s different from what’s described above.
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